11 Measles


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  17. Anders JF, Jacobsen RM, Poland GA, et al. 1996. Secondary failure rate of measles vaccines: a meta-analysis of published studies. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 15(1): 62–6.
  18. Davidkin I, Jokinen S, Broman M, et al. 2008. Persistence of measles, mumps and rubella antibodies in an MMR vaccinated cohort: a 20-year follow-up. Journal of Infectious Diseases 197(7): 950–6.
  19. Kontio M, Jokinen S, Paunio M, et al. 2012. Waning antibody levels and avidity: implications for MMR vaccine-induced protection. Journal of Infectious Diseases 206(10): 1542–8.
  20. Ministry of Health. 2012. National Guidelines for Vaccine Storage and Distribution. URL:
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  24. Nakayama T, Aizawa C, Kuno-Sakai H. 1999. A clinical analysis of gelatin allergy and determination of its causal relationship to the previous administration of gelatin-containing acellular pertussis vaccine combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 103(2 Pt 1): 321–5.
  25. Peltola H, Heinonen OP. 1986. Frequency of true adverse reactions to measles-mumps-rubella vaccine. The Lancet 327(8487): 939–42.
  26. Peltola H, Patja A, Leinikki P, et al. 1998. No evidence for measles mumps and rubella vaccine-associated inflammatory bowel disease or autism in a 14 year prospective study. The Lancet 351(9112): 1327–8.
  27. Wolf J, Eisen JE, Fraimow HS. 1993. Symptomatic rubella reinfection in an immune contact of a rubella vaccine recipient. Southern Medical Journal 86(1): 91–3.
  28. Morfin F, Beguin A, Lina B, et al. 2002. Detection of measles vaccine in the throat of a vaccinated child. Vaccine 20(11–12): 1541–3.
  29. Reef SE, Plotkin SA. 2013. Rubella vaccine. In: Plotkin SA, Orenstein WA, Offit PA (eds). Vaccines (6th edition): Elsevier Saunders.
  30. O’Leary ST, Glanz JM, McClure DL, et al. 2012. The risk of immune thrombocytopenic purpura after vaccination in children and adolescents. Pediatrics 129(2): 248–55.
  31. Beeler J, Varricchio F, Wise R. 1996. Thrombocytopenia after immunisation with measles vaccines: review of the vaccine adverse events reporting system (1990 to 1994). Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 15(1): 88–90.
  32. The Medicines Control Agency and Committee on the Safety of Medicines. 2001. MMR vaccine and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Current Problems in Pharmacovigilance 27: 15.
  33. Miller E, Waight P, Farrington CP, et al. 2001. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and MMR vaccine. Archives of Disease in Childhood 84(3): 227–9.
  34. Stowe J, Kafatos G, Andrews N, et al. 2008. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and the second dose of MMR. Archives of Disease in Childhood 93(2): 182–3.
  35. Weibel RE, Caserta V, Benor DE, et al. 1998. Acute encephalopathy followed by permanent brain injury or death associated with further attenuated measles vaccines: a review of claims submitted to the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. Pediatrics 101(3): 383–7.
  36. Black S, Shinefield H, Ray P, et al. 1997. Risk of hospitalization because of aseptic meningitis after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination in one- to two-year-old children: an analysis of the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) Project. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 16(5): 500–3.
  37. Farrington CP, Pugh S, Colville A, et al. 1995. A new method for active surveillance of adverse events from diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis and measles/mumps/rubella vaccines. The Lancet 345(8949): 567–9.
  38. Slater PE, Ben-Zvi T, Fogel A, et al. 1995. Absence of an association between rubella vaccination and arthritis in underimmune post-partum women. Vaccine 13(16): 1529–32.
  39. Ray P, Black S, Shinefield H, et al. 1997. Risk of chronic arthropathy among women after rubella vaccination. Journal of the American Medical Association 278(7): 551–6.
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  41. Institute of Medicine. 2012. Adverse Effects of Vaccines: Evidence and causality Washington DC: The National Academies Press.
  42. Miller E. 2002. MMR vaccine: review of benefits and risks. Journal of Infection 44(1): 1–6.
  43. Makela A, Nuorti JP, Peltola H. 2002. Neurologic disorders after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination. Pediatrics 110(5): 957–63.
  44. Health Canada. 2001. Does measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination cause inflammatory bowel disease and autism? Canada Communicable Disease Report 27(8): 65–72.
  45. Davis RL, Kramarz P, Bohlke K, et al. 2001. Measles-mumps-rubella and other measles-containing vaccines do not increase the risk for inflammatory bowel disease. Archives of Pediatric & Adolescent Medicine 155(3): 354–9.
  46. Yang HM, Mao M, Wan CM. 2005. Vitamin A for treating measles. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Issue 4, Art. No. CD001479. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001479.pub3
  47. World Health Organization. 2009. Measles vaccines: WHO position paper. Weekly Epidemiological Record (35). URL:
  48. Ministry of Health. 2012. Communicable Disease Control Manual 2012. URL: