13 Mumps

13.4 Vaccines

13.4.1 Available vaccines

Mumps vaccine is one of the components of the live attenuated measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) and measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) vaccines, considered in sections 11.4 and 21.4. The funded MMR vaccine and the MMRV vaccine (registered for use but not currently available in New Zealand) both contain the Jeryl Lynn mumps strain. The more reactive Urabe strain was used in New Zealand for a short time from 1991 until it was withdrawn in 1992 (see also section 11.7.2).

Funded vaccine

MMR vaccine funded as part of the Schedule is MMR II (MSD), which contains further attenuated Enders’ Edmonston (Moraten) strain measles, RA 27/3 rubella, and Jeryl Lynn mumps. See section 11.4.1 for more information.

There is no single-antigen mumps vaccine available in New Zealand (see sections 11.4.1 and 21.4.1 for information on other vaccines).

13.4.2 Efficacy and effectivenessTop

A 2012 Cochrane review of the safety and effectiveness of MMR vaccine estimated that a single dose of MMR vaccine was 69–81 percent effective in preventing clinical mumps. Effectiveness of MMR in preventing laboratory-confirmed mumps cases in children and adolescents was estimated to be between 64 and 66 percent for one dose and between 83 and 88 percent for two vaccine doses.3

A two-dose vaccination schedule and high immunisation coverage has been very successful in controlling disease. However, outbreaks can still occur in highly immunised populations because two doses of vaccine are not 100 percent effective. A third dose of MMR vaccine has been used safely and effectively during mumps outbreaks in highly immunised populations.4 Although the mumps vaccine is less effective than measles and rubella vaccines, cases that have been vaccinated are significantly less likely to experience complications from disease such as orchitis, meningitis and hospitalisation.5

See section 11.4.2 for information on the duration of immunity from MMR vaccine.

13.4.3 Transport, storage and handlingTop

Transport according to the National Guidelines for Vaccine Storage and Distribution.6 Store in the dark at +2oC to +8oC. Do not freeze.

MMR vaccine must be reconstituted only with the diluents supplied by the manufacturer. Use MMR vaccine as soon as possible after reconstitution. If storage is necessary, reconstituted MMR vaccine can be stored in the dark at +2oC to +8oC for up to eight hours.

13.4.4 Dosage and administrationTop

The dose of MMR is all of the reconstituted vaccine (approximately 0.5 mL) administered by subcutaneous injection in the deltoid area to all age groups (see section 2.3).

Co-administration with other vaccines

MMR vaccine can be given concurrently with other vaccines, as long as separate syringes are used and the injections are given at different sites. If not given concurrently, live vaccines should be given at least four weeks apart.