|Mode of transmission||Contact with respiratory droplets.|
|Incubation period||Asymptomatic nasopharyngeal carriage is common. The incubation period is variable and may be as short as 1–3 days.|
|Burden of disease||Particularly the young, the elderly and the immune compromised.|
|Funded vaccines||13-valent protein conjugate vaccine, PCV13 (Prevenar 13) for: |
|Funded vaccine indications and schedule||Children who have started with PCV10 can continue with PCV13. |
All children aged under 5 years: PCV13 at ages 6 weeks, 3, 5 and 15 months.
High-risk children aged under 18 years: age-appropriate high-risk PCV13 schedule, plus 1 dose of 23PPV at age 2 years or older (at least 8 weeks after the last PCV13). If risk persists, revaccinate once with 23PPV, 5 years after the first 23PPV.
High-risk adults: 1 dose of PCV13 followed 8 weeks later with 1 dose of 23PPV. Give a maximum of 3 doses of 23PPV in their lifetime, a minimum of 5 years apart.
|Vaccine efficacy/effectiveness||For pneumococcal conjugate vaccines: reductions in pneumococcal disease and carriage in vaccinated populations, plus herd immunity effects reducing pneumococcal disease in other age groups; some increases in disease caused by non-vaccine serotypes.|
|Precautions||There may be an increased risk of fever and febrile convulsions with concomitant PCV13 and influenza vaccine in children aged 6–59 months. |
Due to the potential risk of apnoea, PCV13 should be used with caution in very premature babies, but do not avoid or delay immunisation.