17 Rotavirus

Key information

Mode of transmission Faecal–oral route through close personal contact and fomites.
Incubation period 1–3 days.
Period of communicability Immediately before, and up to 1–2 weeks after, the onset of symptoms.
Burden of disease All children during infancy or early childhood. Severe disease occurs most often in children aged 3 months to 2 years.
Funded vaccine RV5 (RotaTeq), a live attenuated, orally administered, pentavalent vaccine.
Funded immunisation indications and schedule Infants at ages 6 weeks, 3 and 5 months.

For catch-up schedules, the first dose should be given before age 15 weeks and the third dose should be given by age 8 months and 0 days.
Vaccine efficacy/effectiveness High effectiveness against severe rotavirus diarrhoea; some evidence for efficacy against all cause diarrhoea and for herd protection.
Contraindications Acute or moderate gastroenteritis.

With conditions that predispose the infant to intussusception.

Severe combined immune deficiency.
Adverse events to vaccine Potentially a very small risk for intussusception; the benefits of immunisation outweigh this potential risk.