17 Rotavirus


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  6. Bishop RF. 1996. Natural history of human rotavirus infection. Archives of Virology – Supplementum 12: 119–28.
  7. Bishop RF, Barnes GL, Cipriani E, et al. 1983. Clinical immunity after neonatal rotavirus infection: a prospective longitudinal study in young children. New England Journal of Medicine 309(2): 72–6.
  8. Tate JE, Burton AH, Boschi-Pinto C, et al. 2012. 2008 estimate of worldwide rotavirus-associated mortality in children younger than 5 years before the introduction of universal rotavirus vaccination programmes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 12(2). DOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(11)70253-5 (accessed 5 November 2013).
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  11. Milne RJ, Grimwood K. 2009. Budget impact and cost-effectiveness of including a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in the New Zealand childhood immunization schedule. Value in Health 12(6): 888–98.
  12. Parashar UD, Hummelman EG, Bresee JS, et al. 2003. Global illness and deaths caused by rotavirus disease in children. Emerging Infectious Diseases 9(5): 565–72.
  13. Dennehy PH, Cortese MM, Bégué RE, et al. 2006. A case-control study to determine risk factors for hospitalization for rotavirus gastroenteritis in US children. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 25(12): 1123–31.
  14. Newman RD, Grupp-Phelan J, Shay DK, et al. 1999. Perinatal risk factors for infant hospitalization with viral gastroenteritis. Pediatrics 102(1): E3.
  15. Huppertz H-I, Salman N, Giaquinto C. 2008. Risk factors for severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 27(1). DOI: 10.1097/INF.0b013e31815eee0a (accessed 5 November 2013).
  16. Sethi D, Cumberland P, Hudson MJ, et al. 2001. A study of infectious intestinal disease in England: risk factors associated with group A rotavirus in children. Epidemiology and Infection 126(1): 63–70.
  17. Chandran A, Heinzen RR, Santosham M, et al. 2006. Nosocomial rotavirus infections: a systematic review. Journal of Pediatrics 149(4): 441–7.
  18. Grimwood K, Abbott GD, Fergusson DM, et al. 1983. Spread of rotavirus within families: a community based study. British Medical Journal 287(6392): 575–7.
  19. Butz AM, Fosarelli P, Dick J. 1993. Prevalence of rotavirus on high-risk fomites in day-care facilities. Pediatrics 92(2): 202–5.
  20. Velazquez FR, Matson DO, Calva JJ, et al. 1996. Rotavirus infections in infants as protection against subsequent infections. New England Journal of Medicine 335(14): 1022–8.
  21. Angel J, Franco MA, Greenburg HB. 2012. Rotavirus immune responses and correlates of protection. Current Opinion in Virology 2(4). DOI: 10.1016/j.coviro.2012.05.003 (accessed 5 November 2013).
  22. Grimwood K, Huang QS, Cohet C, et al. 2006. Rotavirus hospitalisation in New Zealand children under 3 years of age. Journal of Paediatrics & Child Health 42(4): 196–203.
  23. Phua KB, Quak SH, Lee BW, et al. 2005. Evaluation of RIX4414, a live, attenuated rotavirus vaccine, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial involving 2464 Singaporean infants. Journal of Infectious Diseases 192(Suppl 1): S6–16.
  24. Salinas B, Perez Schael I, Linhares AC, et al. 2005. Evaluation of safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of an attenuated rotavirus vaccine, RIX4414: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in Latin American infants. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 24(9): 807–16.
  25. Vesikari T, Matson DO, Dennehy P, et al. 2006. Safety and efficacy of a pentavalent human-bovine (WC3) reassortant rotavirus vaccine. New England Journal of Medicine 354(1): 23–33.
  26. Soares-Weiser K, MacLehose H, Bergman H, et al. 2012. Vaccines for preventing rotavirus diarrhoea: vaccines in use. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Issue 11, Art. No. CD008521. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008521.pub3 (accessed 12 August 2013).
  27. Patel MM, Glass R, Desai R, et al. 2012. Fulfilling the promise of rotavirus vaccines: how far have we come since licensure? The Lancet Infectious Diseases 12(7): 561–70.
  28. Steele AD, Neuzil KM, Cunliffe NA, et al. 2012. Human rotavirus vaccine Rotarix™ provides protection against diverse circulating rotavirus strains in African infants: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Infectious Diseases 12(213). DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-12-213 (accessed 5 November 2013).
  29. Armah GE, Sow SO, Breiman RF, et al. 2010. Efficacy of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants in developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The Lancet 376(9741). DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60889-6 (accessed 5 November 2013).
  30. Vesikari T, Karvonen A, Ferrante SA, et al. 2010. Sustained efficacy of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, RV5, up to 3.1 years following the last dose of vaccine. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 29(10): 957–63.
  31. Correia JB, Patel MM, Nakagomi O, et al. 2010. Effectiveness of monovalent rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix) against severe diarrhea caused by serotypically unrelated G2P[4] strains in Brazil. Journal of Infectious Diseases 201(3): 363–9.
  32. Yen C, Figueroa JR, Uribe ES, et al. 2011. Monovalent rotavirus vaccine provides protection against an emerging fully heterotypic G9P[4] rotavirus strain in Mexico. Journal of Infectious Diseases 204(5): 783–6.
  33. Richardson V, Hernandez-Pichardo J, Quintanar-Solares M, et al. 2010. Effect of rotavirus vaccination on death from childhood diarrhea in Mexico. New England Journal of Medicine 362(4): 299–305.
  34. Gastañaduy PA, Sánchez-Uribe E, Esparza-Aguilar M, et al. 2013. Effect of rotavirus vaccine on diarrhea mortality in different socioeconomic regions of Mexico. Pediatrics 131(4). DOI: 10.1542/peds.2012-2797 (accessed 5 November 2013).
  35. Sheridan S, Lambert S, Grimwood K. 2012. Impact of rotavirus vaccination on childhood gastroenteritis. Microbiology Australia 33. URL: (accessed 5 November 2013).
  36. Pitzer VE, Atkins KE, de Blasio BF, et al 2012. Direct and indirect effects of rotavirus vaccination: comparing predictions from transmission dynamic models. PLOS ONE 7(8). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042320 (accessed 1 November 2012).
  37. Payne DC, Staat MA, Edwards KM, et al. 2011. Direct and indirect effects of rotavirus vaccination upon childhood hospitalizations in 3 US counties, 2006–2009. Clinical Infectious Diseases 53(3): 245–53.
  38. Buttery JP, Lambert SB, Grimwood K, et al. 2011. Reduction in rotavirus-associated acute gastroenteritis following introduction of rotavirus vaccine into Australia’s national childhood vaccine schedule. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 30(Suppl. 1): S25–9.
  39. Dennehy PH. 2012. Effects of vaccine on rotavirus disease in the pediatric population. Current Opinion in Pediatrics 24(1): 76–84.
  40. Ministry of Health. 2012. National Guidelines for Vaccine Storage and Distribution. URL:
  41. Department of Health and Ageing. 2013. Rotavirus. The Australian Immunisation Handbook. Canberra, ACT: Department of Health and Ageing.
  42. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2010. Addition of severe combined immunodeficiency as a contraindication for administration of rotavirus vaccine. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 59(22): 687–8.
  43. Boom JA, Sahni LC, Payne DC, et al. 2012. Symptomatic infection and detection of vaccine and vaccine-reassortant rotavirus strains in 5 children: a case series. Journal of Infectious Diseases 206(8): 1275–9.
  44. American Academy of Pediatrics. 2012. Rotavirus infections. In: Pickering LK, Baker CJ, Kimberlin DW, et al (eds). Red Book: 2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases (29th edition). Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics.
  45. Carlin JB, Macartney KK, Lee KJ, et al. 2013. Intussusception risk and disease prevention associated with rotavirus vaccines in Australia’s National Immunization Program. Clinical Infectious Diseases 57(10): 1427–34.
  46. Therapeutic Goods Administration. 2013. Rotavirus Vaccination and the Risk of Intussusception. URL: (accessed 3 October 2013).
  47. Yen C, Tate JE, Steiner CA, et al. 2012. Trends in intussusception hospitalizations among US infants before and after implementation of the rotavirus vaccination program, 2000–2009. Journal of Infectious Diseases 206(1): 41–8.
  48. World Health Organization. 2013. Position paper on rotavirus vaccines. Weekly Epidemiological Record 88(5). URL: (accessed 17 October 2013).
  49. Bernstein DI. 2009. Rotavirus overview. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 28(Suppl 3): S50–3.