|Mode of transmission||By direct or droplet contact with infected nasopharyngeal secretions. |
Infants with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) shed rubella virus in their pharyngeal secretions and urine.
|Incubation period||14–23 days, usually 16–18 days.|
|Period of communicability||7 days before until 7 days after the onset of the rash. |
Infants with CRS may be infectious for months.
|Funded vaccine||A live attenuated vaccine (MMR II), containing measles, mumps and rubella viruses.|
|Funded vaccine indications and schedule||Children at ages 15 months and 4 years. |
Adults who are susceptible to 1 or more of measles, mumps and rubella.
For (re-)vaccination following immunosuppression (seek specialist advice).
|Serological testing||Rubella is rare in New Zealand, and so: |
|Vaccine efficacy/effectiveness||Highly effective with a 2-dose schedule; protection lasts at least 20 years and may be considerably longer.|
|Egg allergy||Egg allergy, including anaphylaxis, is not a contraindication for MMR vaccine.|
|Adverse events to vaccine||MMR vaccine is generally well tolerated. The risk of adverse reactions to MMR vaccine is low compared to the risk of complications from rubella disease.|