|Mode of transmission||Contact with respiratory droplets or infected skin of a case or carrier or, more rarely, contaminated articles.|
|Incubation period||Usually 2–5 days, occasionally longer.|
|Period of communicability||Variable; usually 2 weeks or less, seldom more than |
4 weeks. Carriers may shed for longer. Effective antimicrobial therapy promptly terminates shedding.
|Funded vaccines||DTaP-IPV-HepB/Hib (Infanrix-hexa). |
Td (ADT Booster).
|Funded vaccine indications and schedule||At age 6 weeks, 3 months and 5 months: DTaP-IPV-HepB/Hib. |
At age 4 years: DTaP-IPV.
At age 11 years: Tdap.
At ages 45 and 65 years: Td (administration not funded).
During pregnancy (from 28 to 38 weeks’ gestation): Tdap.
For (re-)vaccination of eligible patients.
|Dose interval between Td and Tdap||No minimum interval is required between Td and Tdap, unless Tdap is being given as part of a primary immunisation course.|
|Vaccine efficacy/effectiveness||87–98 percent protection has been demonstrated using population-based analysis. Immunised cases have been shown to have less severe disease.|
|Herd immunity||≥70 percent of the childhood population must be immune to diphtheria to prevent major community outbreaks.|