|Mode of transmission||Contact with infected blood or body ﬂuids during childbirth (vertical transmission); sexual intercourse, intravenous drug use, or contact with broken skin (horizontal transmission).|
|Incubation period||45–180 days, commonly 60–90 days.|
|Period of communicability||Potentially infectious 2–3 weeks before the onset of symptoms, during the clinical disease and usually for 2–3 months after acute hepatitis B illness; as long as HBsAg continues to be present in blood.|
|Burden of disease||New Zealand is a country with a low overall prevalence of hepatitis B carriage, but it contains certain populations with high prevalence. |
All pregnant women and high-risk groups should be screened for chronic infection.
HBV acquisition in infancy is very likely to lead to chronic infection.
Chronic HBV infection can progress to cirrhosis and liver cancer.
|Funded vaccine||Hep B (HBvaxPRO). |
|Funded vaccine indications and schedule||At ages 6 weeks, 3 months and 5 months: |
Babies born to HBsAg-positive mothers: Hep B plus HBIG at birth, then the usual childhood schedule. Serological testing (anti-HBs and HBsAg at age 9 months).
Unvaccinated children aged under 18 years: 3 doses of Hep B, at 0, 1 and 6 months (an accelerated schedule is available).
Eligible adults: 3 doses of Hep B, at 0, 1 and 6 months (an accelerated schedule is available).
|Vaccine efficacy/effectiveness||Protection is expected to be lifelong. Boosters are not recommended.|