|Mode of transmission||Skin-to-skin contact, predominantly sexual, with a person with HPV infection.|
|Links to cancer||HPV is linked to almost all cervical cancers and to about 69% of vulvar, 75% of vaginal, 63% of penile, 90% of anal and 70% of oropharyngeal cancers.|
|Incidence/ prevalence||HPV infection is very common, with initial infection occurring soon after sexual debut and a lifetime risk of over 80%. Recurrent infection and co-infection with multiple types are possible.|
|Funded vaccines||HPV9 (Gardasil 9) and HPV4 (Gardasil) are recombinant subunit vaccines containing virus-like particles. |
|Dose, presentation, route||0.5 mL per dose. |
|Funded indications and recommended schedules||2 doses, at 0 and 6–12 months for children aged 14 years and under. |
3 doses, at 0, 2 and 6 months, for individuals:
Individuals who started with HPV4 may complete their remaining doses with HPV4 or with HPV9 when available.
Individuals who were previously fully vaccinated with HPV4 are not eligible for HPV9.
|Vaccine efficacy/ effectiveness||The incidence of HPV infection, precancerous lesions and genital warts is significantly reduced in immunised populations (in women and men). |
There is evidence for herd immunity (reductions in HPV infection and genital warts in unimmunised populations).
|Pregnancy||HPV vaccines are not recommended for pregnant women; however, enquiring about the possibility of pregnancy is not necessary before vaccination.|
|Adverse events to vaccine||Syncope (fainting) is a known injection reaction in adolescents.|
|Cancer prevention measures||HPV immunisation. |
Regular cervical screening for women.
Safer sex approaches.